Mubarak Shah Khilji

Mubarak Shah Khilji

Mubarak Shah Khalji
Mubarak Shah Khilji
Sultan of Delhi
Reign – A.D. 1316 to 1320
Father - Alauddin Khalji
Died – A.D.  4th April, 1320

People felt great relief after the murder of Malik Kafur as he had created terror all around. Prince Mubarak was freed and requested to act as regent of Sultan Shihabuddin. Mubarak did not want to lose the sympathy of his supporters, so he gladly accepted the offer. But after two months regency he placed Shihabuddin in confinement in the fort of Gwalior and declared himself Sultan of Delhi at the age of eighteen years and assumed the title of Mubarak Shah Khalji.

After his accession, first of all, Sultan Mubarak Shah gained the goodwill of the people and nobles. The first two years of his reign were quite eventful. He released all those persons from confinement who were imprisoned either by Malik Kafur or his father and relaxed the stern regulations of his father. He received the Jagirdari system and awarded Jagirs to Amirs, nobles, saints and scholars. The policy of taxation was revised and price control policy was dropped. Thus in place of ‘blood and iron’ policy of Allauddin Khalji, he introduced the policy of ‘forgive and forget’. People took a sigh of relief in the reign of Mubarak Shah and his popularity increased but his giving them a long rope made the people pleasure seeking and immoral.

Unfortunately, sultan Mubarak Shah was himself lost in pleasures and sensual life. He did not care for the affairs of state at all. He liked the company of naked beautiful ladies and handsome boys. It is said that he often used to come in court in woman’s attire and insulted the nobles in company of prostitutes and his flatterers. The character of the nobles and the public in general was also affected by the character of their Sultan and all of them were gradually given to immorality, intoxication, luxury and debauchery. Barani remarks, “The Sultan sometimes used to run naked in the court

During the reign of Mubarak owing to his loose morals the policies of Alauddin were abolished. He started giving Jagirs to nobles, severe punishments were prohibited and several relaxations were granted in price control and administration. As a result, the internal administration was disturbed and soaring prices made the general life of the people quite difficult. Thus the Sultanate was weakened not only in domestic affairs but also in external matters due to the weaknesses of the Sultan.

 Mubarak Shah, a weak and unworthy ruler, had great love for Khusrau Khan. The Sultan permitted him to maintain a cavalry of his own, consisting of 40000 soldiers Khusrau Khan also got the keys of the palace handed over to his friends and relatives. He also allowed to meet his friends and relatives in the palace at any time as the Sultan had all confidence in him. Thus Khusrau strengthened his background to execute his evil design. He wanted to kill the Sultan. The Sultan was so much lost in wine and women that he did not smell anything fishy in the affectionate behavior of his bosom friends and Wazir, Khusrau Khan. On 4th April, A.D. 1320, the conspirators entered the palace in the night and killed the royal guards. The noise disturbed the Sultan and he wanted to know its reason. Khusrau who had begun o live in the palace of the Sultan, assured him that some horses had run away from the stable and they were being chased. When this dialogue was going on between the Sultan and his favourite Khusrau Khan, some soldiers entered the private apartment of the Sultan with swords in their hands. Frightened by the situation the Sultan tried to run away from the scene but he was caught by Khusrau Khan and his soldiers chopped off his head and threw it in the courtyard of the palace. Thus the inglorious four-year of Mubarak Shah came to an end and the strong Khalji Empire began to crumble gradually.

Mubarak Shah was the unworthy son of a worthy father. He could not administer the kingdom in a proper manner. Although he assumed the title of Al-Imam, Ul-Iman and Khalafat Ullah, he did not deserve this title because of his inherent weaknesses. To sum up, we may quote Dr. S. Roy. “Mubarak Shah was an unworthy successor of his father. Frivolous and depraved, cruel and arrogant, Mubarak lacked his father’s ability and vigour as well as his genius for organization and leadership. In him the vices of Alauddin were magnified but his virtues were lacking. Though he did not observe fasts and say prayers he assumed the title of Commander of the Faithful and vicegerent of god as well as Imam, and in theory made the kingdom of Delhi independent of the Caliphate. His predecessors, including the lordly Balban and the mighty Alauddin Sikandar Sani had all acknowledged the legal sovereignty of the Caliph. Mubarak also displayed hatred and animosity against the saint Nizamuddin Auliya.”


Milan Tomic

Hi. I’m Designer of Blog Magic. I’m CEO/Founder of ThemeXpose. I’m Creative Art Director, Web Designer, UI/UX Designer, Interaction Designer, Industrial Designer, Web Developer, Business Enthusiast, StartUp Enthusiast, Speaker, Writer and Photographer. Inspired to make things looks better.

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